The Romanesque Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary is the oldest monument in the grounds of the Průhonice Castle. Built at the same time as the fortress, it was consecrated in 1187 by Bishop Henry Bretislaus of Prague, nephew of King Vladislav. During a later reconstruction, the Romanesque apse was demolished, and the chapel was given a Gothic extension. In 1890, Gothic linear frescoes from the first half of the 14th century were discovered on the walls.
The main winged altarpiece, by the Master of the Vejprnice Altar, depicts scenes from the life of the Blessed Virgin Mary and dates from the end of the 15th century. The chapel houses a copy of this work, as the original is kept in the Czech Gothic collections at the National Gallery in Prague.
In 2018, the full restoration of the chapel interior – including the restoration of the murals– was completed.